antimony n : a metallic element having four allotropic forms; used in a wide variety of alloys; found in stibnite [syn: Sb, atomic number 51]
EtymologyUnclear; possibly from the Greek αντιμόνος (antimónos), "opposed to solitude", as the element was thought never to exist in its pure form; or from the Pharaonic expression "Antos Ammon", which may be translated as "bloom of the god Ammon."
- a chemical element (symbol Sb) with an atomic number of 51. The symbol is derived from the Latin stibium.
- Do not confuse antimony with antinomy.
- antimony blende
- antimony bloom
- antimony glance
- antimony hydride
- antimony ocher, antimony ochre
- antimony oxide
- antimony oxysulfide
- antimony pentachloride
- antimony pentafluoride
- antimony pentoxide
- antimony pentasulfide, antimony pentasulphide
- antimony quintachloride
- antimony sesquioxide
- antimony sulfide, antimony sulphide
- antimony tetroxide
- antimony triacetate
- antimony tribromide
- antimony trichloride
- antimony trifluoride
- antimony trihydride
- antimony triiodide
- antimony trioxide
- antimony triselenide
- antimony tritelluride
- antimony vermilion
- arsenical antimony
- black antimony
- butter of antimony
- crocus of antimony
- crude antimony
- flowers of antimony
- glass of antimony
- gray antimony
- red antimony
- regulus of antimony
- saffron of antimony
- sulfurated antimony, sulphurated antimony
- sulfide of antimony, sulphide of antimony
- tartarated antimony
- pentasulfide antimony, pentasulphide antimony
- white antimony
- Afrikaans: antimoon
- Albanian: antimon
- Arabic: (’antimú:n)
- Armenian: ծարիր (tsarir)
- Basque: antimonioa
- Belarusian: сурма (surmá)
- Bosnian: antimon
- Bulgarian: антимон (antimon)
- Catalan: antimoni
- Chinese: 銻 (tì)
- Cornish: antymony
- Croatian: antimon
- Czech: antimon
- Danish: antimon
- Dutch: antimoon
- Esperanto: antimono
- Estonian: antimon
- Faroese: antimon
- Finnish: antimoni
- French: antimoine
- West Frisian: antimoon
- Friulian: antimoni
- Gallegan: antimonio
- Georgian: სტიბიუმი (stibiumi)
- German: Antimon
- Greek, Modern: αντιμόνιο (andimónio)
- Hebrew: אנטימון (antimón)
- Hungarian: antimon
- Icelandic: antímon
- Interlingua: antimonio
- Irish: antamón
- Italian: antimonio
- Japanese: アンチモン (anchimon), アンチモニー (anchimoni)
- Kashmiri: antimón
- Kazakh: сурьма (sur’ma)
- Korean: 안티몬 (antimon)
- Latin: stibium
- Latvian: antimons
- Lithuanian: stibis
- Luxembourgish: antimon
- Macedonian: антимон (antimon)
- Malay: antimoni
- Maltese: antimonju
- Manx: antimoan
- Mongolian: будаг (budag)
- Norwegian: antimon
- Polish: antymon
- Portuguese: antimónio (Port.), antimônio (Brazil)
- Romanian: antimoniu , stibiu
- Russian: сурьма (sur’ma) , стибиум (stíbium)
- Scottish Gaelic: antamòn
- Serbian: антимон (antimon)
- Slovak: antimón
- Slovenian: antimon
- Spanish: antimonio
- Swedish: antimon
- Tajik: sur'ma
- Tamil: அந்திமன் (antimani)
- Thai: (pluang)
- Turkish: antimon
- Ukrainian: сурма (surmá)
- Uzbek: сурьма (sur’ma)
- Vietnamese: antimon
- Welsh: antimoni
Translations to be checked
External linksFor a more extensive etymology and more information refer to: http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/elem/sb.html (A lot of the translations were taken from that site with permission from the author)
Antimony (IPA [æˈntɪməˌniː] (Received Pronunciation), /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US)) is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (lang-la stibium, meaning "mark") and atomic number 51. A metalloid, antimony has four allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metalloid. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber.
PropertiesAntimony in its elemental form is a silvery white, brittle, fusible, crystalline solid that exhibits poor electrical and heat conductivity properties and vaporizes at low temperatures. A metalloid, antimony resembles a metal in its appearance and in many of its physical properties, but does not chemically react as a metal. It is also attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens. Antimony and some of its alloys are unusual in that they expand on cooling. Antimony is geochemically categorized as a chalcophile, occurring with sulfur and the heavy metals lead, copper, and silver.
ApplicationsAntimony is increasingly being used in the semiconductor industry in the production of diodes, infrared detectors, and Hall-effect devices. As an alloy, this metalloid greatly increases lead's hardness and mechanical strength. The most important use of antimony is as a hardener in lead for storage batteries. Uses include:
- antifriction alloys
- type metal
- small arms and tracer ammunition
- cable sheathing
- medicines, antiprotozoan drugs
- soldering - some "lead-free" solders contain 5% Sb
- main and big-end bearings in internal combustion engines (as alloy)
- used in the past to treat Schistosomiasis; today Praziquantel is universally used
- used in linotype printing machines
Antimony compounds in the form of oxides, sulfides, sodium antimonate, and antimony trichloride are used in the making of flame-proofing compounds, ceramic enamels, glass, paints, and pottery. Antimony trioxide is the most important of the antimony compounds and is primarily used in flame-retardant formulations. These flame-retardant applications include such markets as children's clothing, toys, aircraft and automobile seat covers. It is also used in the fiberglass composites industry as an additive to polyester resins for such items as light aircraft engine covers. The resin will burn while a flame is held to it but will extinguish itself as soon as the flame is removed. Antimony sulfide is also one of the ingredients of safety matches.
In the 1950s, tiny beads of a lead-antimony alloy were used for the emitters and collectors of NPN alloy junction transistors.
The natural sulfide of antimony, stibnite, was known and used in Biblical times as medicine and as a cosmetic. Stibnite is still used in some developing countries as medicine. Antimony has been used for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Antimony attaches itself to sulfur atoms in certain enzymes which are used by both the parasite and human host. Small doses can kill the parasite without causing damage to the patient. Antimony and its compounds are used in several veterinary preparations like Anthiomaline or Lithium antimony thiomalate, which is used as a skin conditioner in ruminants. Antimony has a nourishing or conditioning effect on keratinized tissues, at least in animals. Tartar emetic is another antimony preparation which is used as an anti-schistosomal drug. Treatments chiefly involving antimony have been called antimonials.
Antimony-based drugs such as Allopurinol, and Meglumine, are also considered the drugs of choice for the treatment of Leishmaniasis in domestic animals. Unfortunately, as well as having low therapeutic indices, the drugs are poor at penetrating the bone marrow, where some of the Leishmania amastigotes reside, and so cure of the disease - especially the visceral form - is very difficult.
A coin made of antimony was issued in the Keichow Province of China in 1931. The coins were not popular, being too soft and they wore quickly when in circulation. After the first issue no others were produced.
EtymologyThe ancient words for antimony mostly have, as their chief meaning, kohl, the sulfide of antimony. Pliny the Elder, however, distinguishes between male and female forms of antimony; his male form is probably the sulfide, the female form, which is superior, heavier, and less friable, is probably native metallic antimony.
The Egyptians called antimony mśdmt; in hieroglyphics, the vowels are uncertain, but there is an Arabic tradition that the word is mesdemet. The Greek word, stimmi, is probably a loan word from Arabic or Egyptian, and is used by the Attic tragic poets of the 5th century BC; later Greeks also used stibi, as did Celsus and Pliny, writing in Latin, in the first century AD. Pliny also gives the names stimi [sic], larbaris, alabaster, and the "very common" platyophthalmos, "wide-eye" (from the effect of the cosmetic). Later Latin authors adapted the word to Latin as stibium. The Arabic word for the substance, as opposed to the cosmetic, can appear as ithmid, athmoud, othmod, or uthmod. Littré suggests the first form, which is the earliest, derives from stimmida, (one) accusative for stimmi.
The use of Sb as the standard chemical symbol for antimony is due to the 18th century chemical pioneer, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who used this abbreviation of the name stibium.
The medieval Latin form, from which the modern languages, and late Byzantine Greek, take their names, is antimonium. The origin of this is uncertain; all suggestions have some difficulty either of form or interpretation. The popular etymology, from anti-monachos or French antimoine, still has adherents; this would mean "monk-killer", and is explained by many early alchemists being monks, and antimony being poisonous. So does the hypothetical Greek word antimonos, "against one", explained as "not found as metal", or "not found unalloyed". Lippmann conjectured a Greek word, anthemonion, which would mean "floret", and he cites several examples of related Greek words (but not that one) which describe chemical or biological efflorescence.
The early uses of antimonium include the translations, in 1050-1100, by Constantine the African of Arabic medical treatises. Several authorities believe that antimonium is a scribal corruption of some Arabic form; Meyerhof derives it from ithmid; other possibilities include Athimar, the Arabic name of the metal, and a hypothetical *as-stimmi, derived from or parallel to, the Greek.
HistoryAntimony's sulfide compound, antimony (III) trisulfide, Sb2S3 was recognized in antiquity, at least as early as 3000 BC. Pastes of Sb2S3 powder in fat or in other materials have been used since that date as eye cosmetics in the Middle East and farther afield; in this use, Sb2S3 is called kohl. It was used to darken the brows and lashes, or to draw a line around the perimeter of the eye.
An artifact made of antimony dating to about 3000 BC was found at Tello, Chaldea (part of present day Iraq), and a copper object plated with antimony dating between 2500 BC and 2200 BC has been found in Egypt. There is some uncertainty as to the description of the artifact from Tello. Although it is sometimes reported to be a vase, a recent detailed discussion of it reports it to be rather a fragment of indeterminate purpose.
According to the history of metallurgy, the first description of a procedure for isolating antimony is in the book De la pirotechnia of 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio, written in Italian. This book precedes the more famous 1556 book in Latin by Agricola, De re metallica, even though Agricola has been often incorrectly credited with the discovery of metallic antimony. According to the traditional history of western alchemy, metallic antimony was described (previous to Biringuccio) by the putative Prior Basilius Valentinus in a Latin manuscript, Currus Triumphalis Antimonii, supposedly circa 1450. This manuscript was published in 1604 in English translation as The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony, by Johann Thölde (1565–1614). The marvelous discovery of a complete set of Valentinus' manuscripts, including the alchemical tales, is fully described by Jean-Jacques Manget in his Bibliotheca chemica curiosa (1702): the manuscripts had been enclosed for more than a century in a pillar of St. Peter's Abbey, at Erfurt, until the pillar was shattered by a thunderbolt. Many scholars have considered Basilius Valentinus a mythological personage. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) declared, after careful enquiry, that no Prior Valentinus ever existed in the Abbey of Erfurt, rather that the name was only a pseudonym – probably of Thölde himself – used to merge poorly translated materials of various origins.
According to the traditional history of Middle Eastern alchemy, pure antimony was well known to Geber, sometimes called "the Father of Chemistry", in the 8th century. Here there is still an open controversy: Marcellin Berthelot, who translated a number of Geber's books, stated that antimony is never mentioned in them, but other authors claim that Berthelot translated only some of the less important books, while the more interesting ones (some of which might describe antimony) are not yet translated, and their content is completely unknown.
SourcesEven though this element is not abundant, it is found in over 100 mineral species. Antimony is sometimes found native, but more frequently it is found in the sulfide stibnite (Sb2S3) which is the predominant ore mineral. Commercial forms of antimony are generally ingots, broken pieces, granules, and cast cake. Other forms are powder, shot, and single crystals.
In 2005, China was the top producer of antimony with about 84% world share followed at a distance by South Africa, Bolivia and Tajikistan, reports the British Geological Survey. Chiffres de 2003, métal contenue dans les minerais et concentrés, source: L'état du monde 2005
PrecautionsAntimony and many of its compounds are toxic. Clinically, antimony poisoning is very similar to arsenic poisoning. In small doses, antimony causes headache, dizziness, and depression. Larger doses cause violent and frequent vomiting, and will lead to death in a few days.
See also arsenic poisoning.
A study http://www.rsc.org/delivery/_ArticleLinking/DisplayHTMLArticleforfree.cfm?JournalCode=EM&Year=2006&ManuscriptID=b517844b&Iss=2http://www.lfpress.com/cgi-bin/publish.cgi?p=120232&x found that antimony may be leaching from PET bottled water, but at levels below drinking water guidelines. The guidelines are:
- WHO, 20 µg l–1
- Japan, 15 µg l–1
- US EPA, Health Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Environment, 6 µg l–1
- German Federal Ministry of Environment, 5 µg l–1
The acidic nature of the drink is sufficient to dissolve small amounts of antimony trioxide contained in the packaging of the drink; modern manufacturing methods prevent this occurrence. However, researchers are concerned that antimony levels correspond to duration the bottle is left to stand - the longer the beverage has been bottled, the higher the antimony leached.
ChemistryImportant compounds of antimony include:
See also Antimony compounds.
- W. F. Albright "Notes on Egypto-Semitic Etymology. II", The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 34, No. 4. (Jul., 1918), pp. 215-255. JSTOR link. esp p.230
- Endlich, F.M. "On Some Interesting Derivations of Mineral Names", The American Naturalist, Vol. 22, No. 253. (Jan., 1888), pp. 21-32. JSTOR link. p.28
- Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 5th ed. 2004. Entry for antimony.
- Lippmann, E O von [Edmund Oscar]. 1919. Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie, teil 1. Berlin: Julius Springer. In German.
- Moorey, PRS. 1994. Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: the Archaeological Evidence. New York: Clarendon Press.
- Priesner, Claus and Figala, Karin, eds. 1998. Alchemie. Lexikon einer hermetischen Wissenschaft. München: C.H. Beck. 412 p. In German.
- Sarton, George. 1935. Review of Al-morchid fi'l-kohhl, ou Le guide d'oculistique, translated by Max Meyerhof. Isis (Feb. 1935), 22(2):539-542 (The journal Isis is in the JSTOR archive.) In French.
- Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin. Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers J. Environ. Monit 2006, 8:288-292 DOI: 10.1039/b517844b
- Los Alamos National Laboratory – Antimony
- Public Health Statement for Antimony
- Wakayama, Hiroshi, "Revision of Drinking Water Standards in Japan", Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Japan), 2003
- National Pollutant Inventory - Antimony and compounds
- WebElements.com – Antimony
- World Mine Production of Antimony, by Country
antimony in Afrikaans: Antimoon
antimony in Arabic: إثمد
antimony in Azerbaijani: Stibium
antimony in Bosnian: Antimon
antimony in Bulgarian: Антимон
antimony in Catalan: Antimoni
antimony in Czech: Antimon
antimony in Corsican: Antimoniu
antimony in Welsh: Antimoni
antimony in Danish: Antimon
antimony in German: Antimon
antimony in Estonian: Antimon
antimony in Modern Greek (1453-): Αντιμόνιο
antimony in Spanish: Antimonio
antimony in Esperanto: Antimono
antimony in Basque: Antimonio
antimony in Persian: آنتیموان
antimony in French: Antimoine
antimony in Friulian: Antimoni
antimony in Irish: Antamón
antimony in Manx: Antimoan
antimony in Galician: Antimonio
antimony in Korean: 안티모니
antimony in Armenian: Ծարիր
antimony in Hindi: एन्टिमोनी
antimony in Croatian: Antimon
antimony in Ido: Antimonio
antimony in Indonesian: Antimon
antimony in Icelandic: Antimon
antimony in Italian: Antimonio
antimony in Hebrew: אנטימון
antimony in Javanese: Antimon
antimony in Pampanga: Antimony
antimony in Haitian: Antimwàn
antimony in Kurdish: Stîbyûm
antimony in Latin: Stibium
antimony in Latvian: Antimons
antimony in Luxembourgish: Antimon
antimony in Lithuanian: Stibis
antimony in Lojban: antimoni
antimony in Hungarian: Antimon
antimony in Malayalam: ആന്റിമണി
antimony in Marathi: अँटिमोनी
antimony in Dutch: Antimoon
antimony in Japanese: アンチモン
antimony in Norwegian: Antimon
antimony in Norwegian Nynorsk: Antimon
antimony in Occitan (post 1500): Antimòni
antimony in Uzbek: Surma
antimony in Low German: Antimon
antimony in Polish: Antymon
antimony in Portuguese: Antimônio
antimony in Romanian: Stibiu
antimony in Quechua: Antimunyu
antimony in Russian: Сурьма
antimony in Sicilian: Antimoniu
antimony in Simple English: Antimony
antimony in Slovak: Antimón
antimony in Slovenian: Antimon
antimony in Serbian: Антимон
antimony in Serbo-Croatian: Antimon
antimony in Finnish: Antimoni
antimony in Swedish: Antimon
antimony in Tamil: ஆண்ட்டிமனி
antimony in Thai: พลวง
antimony in Vietnamese: Antimon
antimony in Tajik: Сурма
antimony in Turkish: Antimon
antimony in Ukrainian: Стибій (хімічний елемент)
antimony in Urdu: کحل
antimony in Contenese: 銻
antimony in Chinese: 锑